Brain Tumour

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A brain tumor is a mass or growth of abnormal cells in your brain or close to your brain. Many different types of brain tumors exist. Some brain tumors are noncancerous (benign), and some brain tumors are cancerous (malignant). Brain tumors can begin in your brain (primary brain tumors), or cancer can begin in other parts of your body and spread to your brain (secondary, or metastatic, brain tumors)

What are the Causes of Brain Tumor ?

Primary brain tumor originate in the brain itself or in tissues near to it. such as in the brain-covering membranes , cranial nerves, pituitary or pineal gland.

Primary brain tumor is much less common than are secondary brain tumor, in which cancer begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain.

There are many primary types of tumor. Each gets its name from type of cells that it involves. Examples include:

Gliomas. These tumors Start in the brain or spinal cord & include astrocytomas, ependymoma, glioblastomas, oligoastrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Meningiomas. A meningioma is a type of tumor that arise from the membranes that are surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Most meningiomas are noncancerous.

Pituitary adenomas. These are mostly benign tumors that develop in the pituitary glands at the base of the brain. These tumors can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout body.

Cancer that begins elsewhere and spreads to the brain

Secondary (metastatic) brain tumor is the tumor that result from cancer that starts elsewhere in the body and then spreads (metastasizes) to your brain.

Secondary brain tumor most often occur in people who have a history of the cancer. But in rare cases, a metastatic brain tumor may be the first sign of cancer that begin elsewhere in your body.

Secondary brain tumors are far more common than are primary brain tumor.

Any cancer can spread to the brain, but the most common types include :

  • Breast cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Melanoma

Brain tumor is the repeated production of abnormal cells within the brain, which aggregates to form a solid mass like structure or tumor. It is also called Intracranial neoplasm because of its location.

Types of Brain tumors

The brain tumors are of two basic types on the basis of their nature, benign & malignant. The benign tumors are the one which are not cancerous and remain localized but malignant are those which have cancerous activity & shows metastasis sometimes. The malignant tumors are more dangerous than benign tumors. Various names are also given for brain tumors like Lymphoma, Meningioma, Glioma, Acoustic neuroma, teratoma, etc. on the basis of their location.

Signs & Symptoms

The signs & symptoms of the brain tumor depends on the location & size of tumor in brain.

Most of symptoms are because of intracranial pressure by large tumors which leads to headache, nausea, vomiting, somnolence, anisocoria, etc. In association, brain herniation, temporal uncus & brainstem compression also occurs.

Various behavioral impairments also occurs like impaired judgement, memory loss, apahsia, ataxia, lack of recognition, facial paralysis, dizziness, etc.


No particular cause for brain tumor has been discovered yet but exposure to various ionisable radiation causes certain mutation which leads to brain tumors. Mutation includes the deletion of tumor suppresser gene. The chances of brain tumor also increase with increase in exposure to vinyl chloride.


CT & MRI scans help a lot in diagnosing intracranial neoplasm and give hypo or iso or hyper-intense patches because of disrupted blood brain barrier.

The malignant tumors are identified by pathological studies of the specimen taken. The malignant tumor sample shows anaplasia, atypia, neoplasia, necrosis, etc. The necrosis and hypoxia is because of insufficient oxygen supply to rapidly growing cells of neoplasm.


The brain tumor has many treatment with varying success rates. The most common treatments are surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.


The primary & most desired treatment for intracranial neoplasm as it suggests complete removal of the tumor or cytoreduction of the tumor. Some pheripherally locating tumors are easily removed by this method like meningiomas. Recently, the immunoflourecence labeling techniques are used to label tumor cells for complete removal.


Its aim is to kill cancerous cells without harming the normal brain cells. In case of multiple tumors and secondary tumors, radiotherapy is used so that their number can be minimized or reduced. It is also used after the surgical removal of tumor for complete assurance. The most common radiotherapy used is external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy and proton therapy.


In this method, various tumor killing medicines or drugs are administered in the patient. The dosage and type of drug depends on the health of the patient, type of tumor and extent of the cancer. The demerit of this method is presence of many side effects which include hair loss, dry skin, constipation, etc.

For infants, chemotherapy is preferred over radiotherapy because radiations have more harmful effect on developing brains as compared to certain drugs.