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multiple myeloma

Multiple Myeloma

What is Multiple myeloma?

Multiple myeloma is type of a blood cancer; fundamentally it is a cancer which forms in a type of white blood cell known as plasma cell. Normally the plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, which makes antibodies that fight against the infections in your body known as immune system of the body. Our immune system is made up of several types of cells that work to fight against the infections and other diseases.

In multiple myeloma, plasma cells become cancerous and start growing uncontrollably in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather producing antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins known by several other names, including monoclonal immunoglobulin, monoclonal protein (M-protein), M-spike, or paraprotein.
It is seen multiple myeloma affects more men than women. It affects twice as many people who are black as it does people who are of other races. Mostly it diagnosed of age group between 40 to 70.
Other Plasma Cell Disorders
Multiple myeloma is one of type that can cause problems with patient plasma cells. Others include:
• Monoclonal gammopathy- This condition is known as when your plasma cells make too many copies of one antibody.
• Solitary plasmacytoma- It is most like multiple myeloma, but it causes a single unusual plasma cell growth rather than many of them. This can happen inside or outside a bone.
• Light chain amyloidosis- Causes unusual plasma cells in bone marrow.
• Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia- This is a type of both monoclonal gammopathy and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a cancer of lymph system.

Multiple Myeloma Causes and Risk Factors

Experts are not sure about the exact cause of multiple myeloma. But it is mostly seen people in age group above 60 and (older people), Africans and Africans Americans. Some potential causes they are exploring include:
• Genetic Mutations
• Environmental Factors- Had contact with chemicals used in rubber manufacturing, woodworking, firefighting or in herbicides
• Having an inflammatory disease or condition- Disease include Type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis.
• Overweight or Obese
• Radiation Exposer

Symptoms of Multiple myeloma

Earlier patient might not notice any symptoms. But over the time it may be shown as:
• Bone pain, especially in spine or chest
• Nausea
• Constipation
• Loss of appetite
• Mental fogginess or confusion
• Fatigue
• Frequent infection
• Weight loss
• Weakness or numbness in your legs
• Excessive thirst
• Bruising or bleeding more easily

Multiple Myeloma complications

• Bone problems- Bone can become so weak, leading to fractures.
• Blood problems- Body might get anemic. Causes tiredness, pale and heart problems. Person might also have low platelets level, which makes harder for the blood to clot.
• Infections- When person has myeloma that body is not able to produce healthy antibodies to fight against the infections. Leading weak immune system.
• Kidney damage- Myeloma restricts the proper functioning of the kidneys. They don’t filter the way they should. Might lead to kidney failure.
Multiple Myeloma Diagnosis
When a patient visits to a doctor having above mentioned complains and symptoms related with multiple myeloma. Then the doctor may ask about the patient’s family medical history. He may do some physical examination and advice several blood tests and other tests to confirm a diagnosis. Sometimes doctor diagnose multiple myeloma accidentally during a blood test for some other medical condition of the patient.
Test and procedures used to diagnose multiple myeloma include.
• CBC
• Blood chemistry test
• Quantitative immunoglobulin test
• Electrophoresis test
• Urine test
• Scan like- X rays, CT scan, MRI, PET scan
• Bone marrow biopsy

Once cancer is diagnosed, then doctor check the stage. Staging provides important information about the cancer spread in the body and anticipated response to treatment.

Treatment of multiple myeloma

Treatment of multiple myeloma depends on patient’s symptoms, stage of the cancer and patient’s overall health. In many cases it has seen that team of doctors will work with the patient to find best treatment plan for that particular patient. The goal of treatment is to eliminate the myeloma cells, control tumor growth, control pain, and allow patients to have an active healthy life. While there is no complete cure for multiple myeloma, but it can be managed successfully in many patients for years.
Treatment overview for people with smoldering multiple myeloma:
this is the early stage of myeloma and no symptoms, called smoldering multiple myeloma or SMM. This can closely monitored by the doctor through checkups. The process is called active surveillance or watchful waiting. If doctor find any evidence of bone thinning or osteoporosis, periodic infusions of bisphosphonates to reverse this process may be recommended. Doctors follows clinical protocols which used to evaluate whether using targeted therapy or immunotherapy can prevent or delay myeloma from developing into a disease that requires treatment. Active treatment start only after symptoms appears.
Treatment overview for patients with symptoms
Patients with symptomatic myeloma include both treatments to control the disease spread as well as supportive care to improve quality of life.

Different phases of treatment –

• Induction therapy for rapid control of cancer and to relieve symptoms.
• Consolidation for more chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.
• Maintenance therapy over a prolonged period to prevent the recurrence of cancer
Mediational therapies
• Chemotherapy
• Targeted therapy
• Immunomodulatory drugs
• Steroids
• Bone- modifying drugs
• Immunotherapy
Bone marrow transplant
Radiation therapy

For any enquiry regarding Best multiple myeloma hospitals & doctors or multiple myeloma treatment in India, Connect with us via HELPLINE: +91 9818857545 for immediate assistance & support.

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Multiple myeloma treatment in India

Multiple Myeloma Treatment in India

Multiple myeloma is a blood disorder disease usually called blood caner. Multiple myeloma can be treated by the bone marrow transplant process.

In the initial stages of multiple myeloma treatment, there are no symptoms but as the disease progresses, it may show some symptoms –

  • Bone Fractures
  • Bone pain
  • Tiredness/fatigue
  • Appetite loss/ weight loss
  • Kidney function problems

What is Multiple myeloma?

Basically, Multiple myeloma releases chemicals that create an imbalance in bone destruction and bone formation. This may cause a hole in bones or bone thinning. 

Multiple myeloma generally occurs in men than women. It is gradually increasing in urban India.

What causes multiple myeloma?

  • There is a condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance. Where there is an excess of protein molecules, called immunoglobins, in your blood.
  • Black people are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than other people.
  • Family history of multiple myeloma
  • Multiple myeloma diagnosed in the mid 60’s.

Procedure to diagnose of Multiple myeloma

Test and procedure to diagnose multiple myeloma treatment in India

  • Blood Test – In this test, it may reveal M Proteins produced by myeloma cells.
  • Urine Test – Anaylsis of your urine test may show M proteins
  • Imaging Test – This test may be recommended to check bone problems associated with multiple myeloma. It may include X-Ray, CT Scan, MRI

Treatment of Multiple myeloma in India

Different types of doctors work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatment.

Treatment plan may include different phases –

  • Induction therapy – for rapid control of cancer and to help relieve symptoms.
  • Chemotherapy or Bone marrow transplant/ Stem cell transplant
  • Maintenance therapy – over a long period of time to prevent cancer occurrence.

Types of medications used for multiple myeloma treatment in India

  • Chemotherapy – a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast growing cells in your body.
  • Targeted Therapy – a type of cancer treatment, that uses drugs to target specific genes and protiens that help cancer cells survive and grow.
  • Steriods – An anti-inflammatory medicines used to treat a range of conditions.
  • Immunotherapy – a type of cancer treatment that increases immune system to fight cancer. It helps your body fight against infections.
  • Bone-modifying drugs

For any enquiry regarding Best Multiple Myeloma hospitals & doctors or multiple myeloma treatment in India, Connect with us via HELPLINE: +91 9818857545 for immediate assistance & support.

Stem Cell Transplant

Stem cell transplantation is a treatment choice for people with multiple myeloma. There are three general kinds of transplantation  :-

  • Autologous transplantation – The Stem cells are gotten from your own blood or bone marrow. This is the kind of transplantation that is generally ordinarily suggested for treating multiple myeloma.
  • Allogeneic transplantation – The Stem cells or bone marrow are gotten from a donor with a tissue type matching yours. This kind of transplantation conveys exceptionally high risk and isn’t suggested for the vast majority with numerous myeloma.
  • Syngeneic transplantation – The stem cells or bone marrow are obtained from an identical twin. This is the ideal type of transplantation, albeit barely any individuals with different myeloma have an indistinguishable twin who can act as a donor.

Transplantation, when effective, prompts a reduction and drags out endurance; seldom, allogeneic transplantation fixes different myeloma. Notwithstanding, transplantation has a few limits. The high-portion chemotherapy given before transplantation generally neglects to kill all of the plasma cells, permitting the condition to backslide after transplantation. Such treatment likewise expands your gamble of serious contaminations and dying, which can be deadly.

Autologous foundational microorganism transplantation — Autologous stem cell organism transplantation alludes to transplantation with your own undeveloped cells. During this system, stem organisms are gathered and frozen for sometimes in the future. High-portion chemotherapy is then given to kill however many plasma cells as could be expected under the circumstances, and the stem organisms are defrosted and gotten back to your body. Foundational microorganisms can be acquired from the blood or the bone marrow; for this situation, getting them from the blood is liked, on the grounds that blood undeveloped cells move to tissues all the more rapidly and are less inclined to be tainted with malignant plasma cells.

As of now, autologous stem cell transplantation is appropriate for up to 50 percent of individuals with multiple myeloma. Autologous undeveloped cell transplantation isn’t suggested for individuals with seething multiple myeloma treatment (individuals with multiple myeloma who have no side effects).

Who treats multiple myeloma?

  • Orthopedic Surgeon, a doctor who uses surgery to treat diseases of
  • Radiation oncology, a doctor who treats cancer with radiation therapy.
  • Medical oncologist, a doctor who treats cancer with medicines such as chemotherapy or targeted therapy.
  • Bone marrow transplant Specialist, a doctor who specializes in performing bone marrow transplants.

For any enquiry regarding Best Multiple Myeloma hospitals & doctors or multiple myeloma treatment in India, Connect with us via HELPLINE: +91 9818857545 for immediate assistance & support.

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