Depending on each case, prostate cancer treatment includes-
- Active or Observation of Prostate cancer stage
It is used to describe the less intensive type of follow-up that may few tests and rely more on changes in a man’s symptoms to decide. If treatment is needed.
- Surgery for prostate cancer
Surgery involves the removal of the prostate and some surrounding lymph nodes during an operation.
- Open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy – In a laparoscopic prostatectomy, the specialist makes a few more modest cuts and uses unique long surgical devices to remove the prostate. The specialist either holds the instruments straightforwardly, or uses a control panel to move robotic arms that hold the devices exactly. This treatment of prostatectomy has become more common now a days. If done by experienced specialists, the laparoscopic revolutionary prostatectomy can give results like the open approach.
For this open operation, the surgeon makes an incision (cut) in your lower abdomen, from the belly button down to the pubic bone, as shown in the picture below. You will either be under general anesthesia (asleep) or be given spinal or epidural anesthesia (numbing the lower half of the body) along with sedation during the surgery.
After the prostate is removed, while you are still under anesthesia, a catheter (thin, flexible tube) will be put in your penis to help drain your bladder. The catheter will usually stay in place for 1 to 2 weeks while you heal. You will be able to urinate on your own after the catheter is removed.
You will probably stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery, and your activities will be limited for several weeks.
Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy
For a laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), the surgeon inserts special long instruments through several small incisions in the abdominal wall to remove the prostate. One of the instruments has a small video camera on the end, which lets the surgeon see inside the body.
Laparoscopic prostatectomy has some advantages over open radical prostatectomy, including less blood loss and pain, shorter hospital stays (usually no more than a day), faster recovery times, and the catheter will need to remain in the bladder for less time.
- Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
The main types of radiation therapy used for prostate cancer are:
In this, radiations are focused on the prostate gland from a machine outside the body. This type of radiation can be used to try to cure earlier stage cancers, or to help relieve symptoms such as bone pain if the cancer has spread to a specific area of bone. You will usually go for treatment 5 days a week in an outpatient center for at least several weeks, depending on why the radiation is being given. Each treatment is much like getting an x-ray. The radiation is stronger than that used for an x-ray, but the procedure typically is painless. Each treatment lasts only a few minutes, although the setup time — getting you into place for treatment — takes longer.
- Brachytherapy (internal radiation)
Brachytherapy (also called seed implantation or interstitial radiation therapy) uses small radioactive pellets, or “seeds,” each about the size of a grain of rice. These pellets are placed directly into your prostate.
- Brachytherapy alone is generally used only in men with early-stage prostate cancer that is relatively slow growing (low-grade).
- Brachytherapy combined with external radiation is sometimes an option for men who have a higher risk of the cancer growing outside the prostate.
Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs that contain radioactive elements. They are injected into a vein and travel through the blood to reach cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. These drugs then give off radiation that kills the cancer cells. (The type of radiation they use travels only a short distance, which helps limit side effects.) Unlike other types of radiation, these drugs can reach cancer anywhere in the body.
- Cryotherapy for prostate cancer
Cryotherapy is sometimes used if the cancer has come back after radiation therapy. It may be an option to treat men with low risk early-stage prostate cancer who cannot have surgery or radiation therapy. However, most doctors do not use cryotherapy as the first treatment for prostate cancer. This type of procedure requires spinal or epidural anesthesia (the lower half of your body is numbed) or general anesthesia (you are asleep).
Hormone therapy is also called androgen suppression therapy. The goal of this treatment is to reduce levels of male hormones, called androgens, in the body, or to stop them from fueling prostate cancer cell growth.
Androgens stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. The main androgens in the body are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Most androgens are made by the testicles, but the adrenal glands (glands that sit above your kidneys) as well as the prostate cancer cells themselves, can also make androgens.
Lowering androgen levels or stopping them from getting into prostate cancer cells often makes prostate cancers shrink or grow more slowly for a time. But hormone therapy alone does not cure prostate cancer.
- Chemotherapy for prostate therapy
Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs injected into a vein or given by mouth. These drugs travel through the bloodstream to reach cancer cells in most parts of the body.
Chemo is sometimes used if prostate cancer has spread outside the prostate gland and hormone therapy isn’t working.
For prostate cancer, chemo drugs are typically used one at a time. Some of the chemo drugs used to treat prostate cancer include:
- Docetaxel (Taxotere)
- Cabazitaxel (Jevtana)
- Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
- Estramustine (Emcyt)
- Immunotherapy for prostate cancer
Immunotherapy is the use of medicines to stimulate a person’s own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells more effectively. Certain types of immunotherapy can be used to treat prostate cancer.
Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is a cancer vaccine. which boost the body’s immune system to help prevent infections, this vaccine boosts the immune system to help it attack prostate cancer cells. The vaccine is used to treat advanced prostate cancer that’s no longer responding to hormone therapy but is causing few or no symptoms.
This vaccine is made specifically for each man. To make it, white blood cells (cells of the immune system) are removed from your blood over a few hours while you are hooked up to a special machine. The cells are then sent to a lab, where they are mixed with a protein from prostate cancer cells called prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP).
- Targeted Therapy for prostate cancer
Targeted therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to identify and attack cancer cells while doing little damage to normal cells. These therapies attack the cancer cells’ inner workings − that makes them different from normal, healthy cells. Each type of targeted therapy works differently, but they all change the way a cancer cell grows, divides, repairs itself, or interacts with other cells.
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