Symptoms | Causes | Treatment | Stages
Prostate cancer develops in the prostate gland, a part of the reproductive system in men and people assigned male at birth. Many people choose active surveillance (no treatment) because prostate cancer tends to grow slowly and stay in the gland. For cancers that grow fast and spread, common treatments include radiation and surgery.
What are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
In most cases there are no symptoms in the early stages, however, checkup helps in detection of changes that can give sign of this cancer.
The Checkup involves finding levels of PSA in your blood. High levels suggest that there can be presence of the cancer in your prostate.
Following are some more symptoms for males-
- Difficulty in starting & maintaining urine flow
- Frequent urge of urine at night
- Bloody in semen or urine
- Pain during urination
- Pain in ejaculation in some cases
- discomfort during sitting position, Incase, the prostate is enlarged
- difficulty in getting the erection
What are the causes of Prostate Cancer?
Researchers are unsure about the exact cause of Prostate cancer. It develops when specific changes occur in glandular cells. When prostate gland appears abnormal, a doctor may refer these changes as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).
In prostate cancer, normal cells eventually die, but cancer cells don’t. Even, they grow fast into a tumor. As the cells continue to multiply, parts of the tumor can break off and spread to others parts of your body.
Almost, all males over the age of 50 years have PIN. Prostate cancer grows slowly. Most of the cancers are diagnosed before it has spread beyond the prostate. Prostate cancer is highly treatable at this stage.
Other potential causes include:
- Having a BMI > 30 (having obesity).
What are the treatments of Prostate Cancer?
Treatment of prostate cancer depends on various factors like, overall condition of the patient, if the cancer spread. Also, how fast it’s spreading into your body.
Patient should work with various urologists, radiation oncologists, medical oncologists.
Many prostate cancer are diagnosed in early stages of the cancer and can be cured with proper treatment.
Some types of treatments are –
Most common types of treatment for prostate cancer is Surgery. In this type of treatment, Surgeon can remove diseased prostate gland using OPEN, LAPROSCOPIC or ROBOTIC surgery.
In this, urologist may perform a procedure called PROSTATECTOMY.
There are two types of PROSTATECTOMY –
- Open radical prostatectomy – Surgeon makes a single cut into your abdomen from your belly button to pubic bone and removes that disease prostate gland.
- Robotic radical prostatectomy – Surgeon performs several tiny incisions. In this, surgery is performed by a robot system.
- Radiation Therapy –
It this type of treatment, prostate glands are removed through radiation beams.
Brachytherapy – A type of radiation therapy, it involves placing radioactive seeds inside your prostate. This treatment kills cancer cells while preserving healthy cells.
- External beam radiation therapy –
It this treatment, a machine delivers strong X-ray beams directly to the disease prostate gland. In this radiation therapy, it can direct high doses of radiation toward the tumor while spreading surrounding healthy tissue.
- Hormonal Therapy –
The hormone testosterone boosts cancer cell growth. This treatment uses medicines. The medicines work by preventing testosterone from reaching cancer cells or by reducing your testosterone levels. This surgery is an option for people who don’t want to take medications.
- Chemotherapy –
Chemotherapy uses medicines to destroy cancer cells. You may receive chemotherapy alone or with hormone therapy if your cancer has spread beyond your prostate.
- Immunotherapy –
Immunotherapy strengthens your immune system so it’s better able to identify and fight cancer cells. Your healthcare provider may recommend immunotherapy to treat advanced cancer or recurrent cancer.
- Targeted Therapy –
Zeroes in on the genetic changes that turn healthy cells into cancer cells to prevent them from growing and multiplying. This therapies treat prostate cancer destroy cancer cells with BRCA gene mutations.
What are the stages of Prostate Cancer?
Knowing about the stage of CA prostate can help a patient understand what he should expect. We have listed the stages below for you-
- Stage I – Cancer is present only in the prostate gland.
- Stage II – Cancer has not yet spread from the prostate, But a person has higher PSA level.
- Stage III – Cancer has advanced and spread to nearby tissues.
- Stage IV – In this stage, Cancer has gone on to spread to other parts the body like the lungs or bones.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:
- Difficulty peeing.
- Peeing frequently (incontinence).
- Pain when you pee or have intercourse.
- Blood in your pee or semen.
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